I need to get better at doing language learning consistently. You have a week long streak and then you get busy and you forget to do it. Oh well, at least I work with languages for a living so even when I am not Duolingo’ing I am still learning language stuff 🙂
Phrases in Old English
The IPA transcription appears after the phrase
Eala /eːala/ – Hello
Hū gǣþ hit þē? /huː gæːθ hit θɛː/ – How are you? Hit gǣþ wel /hɪt gæːθ wɛl/ – Fine
Hu hātest þu? /huː haːtɛst θuː/ – What is your name? Iċ hāte ___ /ɪt͡ʃ haːtɛ/ – My name is ___
Gēse /jeːzɛ/ – Yes
Nēse /neːzɛ/ – No
Iċ ne mæġ (Eald)1 Englisc spreċan /itʃ͡ nɛ mæj (ɛald) eŋglɪʃ sprɛtʃ͡ an/ – I can not speak (Old) English.
Iċ (ne) þæt underġiete /itʃ͡ nɛ θæt ʊndɜrjɪɛtɛ/ – I (don’t) understand
Spriċþ man (Nīw) Englisc hēr? /sprɪt͡ʃθ man (niːw) eŋglɪʃ her/ – Is there someone here who speaks (Modern) English?
Hwanen cymst þu? /ʍanɛn kʏmst θu/ – Where are you from?
Iċ cume of ___ /itʃ͡ kʊme of/ – I am from ___
Get complete lessons for Old English at Steve the vagabond on Patreon
A long time ago, in the Bronze Age, there were a group of people living in Scandanavia. These people would eventually become the Germanic people. The people living then didn’t really have writing. They had runes but they weren’t used much. They were mostly used for ceremonial purposes like on swords or other blades.
The fact that these people didn’t write many things down means that we know very little about their day to day language. They obviously spoke a language, and we can make some very educated guesses as to their language but we have very few things that directly indicate what their language was like. We don’t know what their language was called, so linguists decided to call it Proto Germanic because it is the language all Germanic languages come from.
Continue reading The story of how the word “stone” came to be
When you are very small you hear the words “dog”, “cat”, “house”, “car”, “mom”, “dad” and just assume that it has always been like that.
As you get older you encounter new words like “selfie”, “defriend”, “doxx”, “bae”, “bling” and you might initially recoil. “What the hell is going on?! Back in my day we had proper words like cat and dog, not this ‘selfie’ nonsense”. I hate to break it to you, but words are coming into the language all the time and they always have.
Even words are seemingly commonplace as “lifestyle” only started being used in the modern sense in the 60s.
Other words have been around longer though, much longer. The word “house” dates back to the language of the Germanic tribes. Linguists call this language Proto Germanic. It was spoken during the bronze age a few millenia ago. The word probably goes back even further.
But where did the word originally come from? Where did any word actually come from? Surely at some point there was no need for the word “house” so the word didn’t exist back then. As our ancestors moved out of caves and moved into the savannah or forest they would eventually have needed a word to describe the thing that provided them shelter.
Continue reading Where do words come from?
There is a change that happened in some West Germanic languages that has obscured the relation between a whole set of words. I would like to explore that change and reveal a connection you might not know about.
All modern Germanic languages (English being one of them) are descended from a language spoken by the Germanic tribes in the Bronze Age. Linguists call this language Proto Germanic. They were spread out across southern Sweden, Denmark and southern Norway. Over time they migrated south into central Europe. Some went east and their language changed over time eventually becoming Gothic.
Those that stayed in central Europe became Germans, Austrians, Swiss, Dutch and Belgians. Some of the Germanic tribes left central Europe for the British isles and they were the ancestors of the English. Those that stayed in Scandanavia eventually became the Swedes, Danes, Norwegians, Icelanders and Faroe islanders.
As the Germanic peoples spread out they took their Germanic language with them and it changes bit by bit over time. Linguistics groups the Germanic languages into three major branches: West Germanic of central Europe and the British isles, East Germanic of eastern Europe and North Germanic of northern Europe, Iceland and the Faroe Islands.
People learn language on their mother’s knees and from their peers. They pick it up around them. They eventually settle on some kind of baseline which they use to communicate with others. They probably hear variations and just get used to range of expression of their language.
Continue reading The story of “us” in the Germanic languages
Modern English is a rather strange language. It is a basically a train wreck between Anglo Saxon (also known as Old English), Old Norse and Norman French
Here’s an example
I am mad (mad comes from Old English ġemǣdd)
I am angry (angry comes from Old Norse angr)
I am agitated (agitate comes from Latin agitatus)
These words all generally mean the same thing with with some nuance to their meanings.
Old English was an inflectional language. This means that it used inflections on verbs and endings on nouns
Continue reading Me, myself and I – An exploration of a weird phenomenon in Modern English
It is a question that has intrigued us for as long as humanity has been around. Some ancient myths talk about gods bestowing the gift of words upon us. We are fascinated by this very complex thing that we do pretty much effortlessly. It is so effortless for us that we often don’t even realise how amazing it is. I think we, as humans, are always asking questions and trying to understand our world, and language is an essential part of the human experience.
People often wonder what it would be like to have telepathy. Well, no need to wonder. We have it already. We can communicate complex ideas just by making sounds, or as I am doing now, writing them down using a system designed for capturing spoken word on the page. It is no surprise to me that our ancestors must have come up with all sorts of explanations for how it must have come about.
But did it really just pop up out of nowhere? No, that doesn’t seem likely. As much as humanity might have a lofty opinion of its own place in the world, we are just as subject to the forces of nature as any other species. There must be an evolutionary reason for how languages ended up developing. I was watching a video about birds and how they evolved. Every living thing alive evolved from an older form. But looking at modern birds, you realise that if they evolved from older forms then that means that one of those older forms didn’t have wings. They didn’t just pop up out of nowhere already having wings. Evolution is a slow process that takes countless generations to end up at the situation we have today.
Continue reading How did language first evolve?
There are three kinds of verbs in Northern Sami: vowel
stem verbs, consonant stem verbs and contracted
Vowel stems are the only verbs that use
Vowel stem verbs always have an even number of
syllables and end on -at, -it, or -ut.
Consonant stem verbs have an odd number of
Contracted verbs end on -át, -et or -ot and have two
juhkat is a vowel stem verb. This is because it has an
even number of syllables: juh-kat
háhkat is a vowel stem verb because it has two
sohaldahttit means to bend down
sojaldahttit is a vowel stem verb because it has four
Get complete lessons for Northern Sami at Steve the vagabond on Patreon
If you have been watching Game of Thrones, then you would have heard the word “wight”. In literature this word is used to refer to some kind of supernatural entity, whether it is a ghost or even a god. Sometimes it can also be used to refer to some kind of monster. In previous centuries the word “wight” was used to refer to a living creature, but was mostly used for people. Game of Thrones combined these two to to name the monstrous undead controlled by the White Walkers (not the Wight Walkers, yes, a bit confusing).
What does this have to do with “not”? Well, in an even older version of English called Old English, the word “wight” was “wiht” and it refered not just to people, and creatures, but to anything that you didn’t have a specific name for, exactly how we use the word “thing” in Modern English.
“not” comes from a compound word in Old English “nāwiht” which was literally “not anything”. This eventually became Middle English not, noght and naht. From here we got “not”, “nought” and “nawt”.
So a word meaning a thing has gone all the way from being very general, to a word that is obscure enough that you might not have even realised that the creatures in Game of Thrones are called “wights”. At first I thought they were just called “whites” after the “White Walkers”. It’s really funny how some words change so much over time but others, like “not”, hardly change at all
We live and breathe language. We take it so for granted that we often don’t realise how amazing it is. Even someone who spends most of their time with language, like me, can still be surprised by things that language does.
When I was growing up, language seemed very straight forward, almost boring.
If I wanted an apple, I could just say “I want an apple”. But as I grew up I began to realise how much is actually packed into this.
Each word is refering to a specific idea that is in the collective understanding of the speech community you are in.
“I” refers to the person speaking. But it doesn’t really. It actually refers to the core of the person, the ego (in the psychologist sense). You can say something like “I want it, but my brain is saying no”. This sentence makes sense because we instinctively understand that there is a difference between someone’s consciousness, and their brain which is the biological part of them that runs their body. If “I” and “brain” were synonymous, then using “I” and “brain” in the same sentence would make no sense.
Continue reading What’s the weirdest way of delivering information that still sounds like language and what can we learn from it?