The history of “ch” in English

The sound “ch” in English has an interesting history. Original the sound was a “k” in Proto Germanic. The sound became palatilised in some words, which means that the sound is pronounced with tongue raised against the hard palate. This can often happen so a series of sounds are easier to say, such as “did you” becoming “di’jew”. In IPA this would be [dɪdjuː] becoming [dɪdʒuː]

A star indicates that the word is reconstructed. Linguists look at the oldest literature in Germanic languages and find connections between the languages. They can then theorise as to what the word was in the parent language.

Here are some Modern English words and the words they came from

beseech: Old English be + sēċan, Proto Germanic *sōkijaną
church: Old English ċiriċe, Proto Germanic *kirikǭ
latch: Old English læċċan, Proto Germanic *lakkijaną
much: Old English miċel, Proto Germanic *mikilaz
watch: Old English wæċċan, Proto Germanic *wakjaną

The “k” sound did not palatilise in other Germanic languages at the same time as Old English did but many of them ended up palatilising later, but to different sounds. In German, sometimes the “k” became /x/ (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Voiceless_velar_fricative), sometimes it became /ç/ (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Voiceless_palatal_fricative#Palatal) and other times it remained a “k”. In Swedish too the “k” sometimes changed to another sound.

These are cognates, not translations. This means that the words listed here come from the same word in Proto Germanic. Cognates can often have different meanings

English German Dutch Swedish
beseech besuchen bezoeken besöka
church Kirche kerk kyrka
much michel mekel mycket
watch wachen waken väcka

English is one of the more divergent Germanic languages. It has very different pronunciations than the other Germanic languages and some of the divergence already happened in Old English. English was weird even back then 😀

Frisian, the closest relative to English

Frisian is the language outside of the British Isles that is the closest relative of English

It is my kat
It is my cat

It is in griene doar
It is a green door

Ik haw brea
I have bread

Ik hear dy
I hear you

Wat is jo namme
What is your name

English diverged a lot after the Norman invasion and Frisian has been influenced by Dutch, but even a thousand years later, we can still see both are very much Germanic and are very similar in some sentences